EU directives are only capable of vertical direct effect. Do you agree?
Direct effect is a principle of EU law which allows provisions of EU law to confer rights upon individuals. Individuals have a right to enforce these provisions before a court. Directives are obligations imposed upon Member States, which are left to be implemented by the Member State on their own accord.
However, individuals are only able to enforce directives against the state (vertical direct effect) and not against other individuals (horizontal direct effect). Do you agree with the current law, which only allows for vertical direct effect, or do you think directives should also be capable of horizontal direct effect? If so, what are your reasons?
This question is in the General Section. Responses must be helpful and on-topic.