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stemnyjones's avatar

Is it correct that if you are paraphrasing an entire paragraph or more from one source in an APA paper, you must cite the source after every sentence?

Asked by stemnyjones (3969points) April 10th, 2011

I can’t find the information on any of the cites that I trust would give me the correct answer (purdue owl, etc).

In my paper I am describing an experiment that was done by three researchers. Because I am describing it in detail, it is taking more than one paragraph.

Below is the first paragraph cited in 2 different ways. Can someone verify for me which one of these is correct, or if neither of them is correct, what I should do to fix it?

The main problem in addiction therapy is figuring out how long to keep a drug abuser in the program long enough for it to work. One of the best ways to ensure this is to create a good therapeutic alliance, meaning that the client feels that he or she can trust the therapist and feels like they are in a non-judging, safe environment (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009). In the study that I will be referencing, Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson arranged for participants who were seeking therapy for substance dependence in a residential treatment facility to be split into two groups; the control group who would receive traditional therapy, and the experimental group who would receive AAT. The 231 participants were of varying age groups, genders, races, income, education levels, and sexuality. There were participants who had been court ordered to receive treatment as well as participants who had personally chosen to receive treatment.

The therapy dog used was a Beagle mix named Mitzi Ann. Mitzi Ann was chosen for this experiment because of the “tricks” that she had been taught. Mitzi Ann was trained to retrieve a tissue from a tissue box and bring it to any participant who began crying or who sneezed. She naturally moved from client to client throughout the therapy sessions, making herself available for physical touch to anyone who wanted it. Physical touch can be very important in an addiction therapy setting because of the social stigma that many addicts deal with; they are often rejected by family and friends and many of the participants in this study had previously been homeless, had come directly out of jail, and had not experienced the comfort of home in some time.

(the very first sentence in the paragraph was not quoted from any source)
or

The main problem in addiction therapy is figuring out how long to keep a drug abuser in the program long enough for it to work (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009). One of the best ways to ensure this is to create a good therapeutic alliance, meaning that the client feels that he or she can trust the therapist and feels like they are in a non-judging, safe environment (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009). In the study that I will be referencing, Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson arranged for participants who were seeking therapy for substance dependence in a residential treatment facility to be split into two groups; the control group who would receive traditional therapy, and the experimental group who would receive AAT. The 231 participants were of varying age groups, genders, races, income, education levels, and sexuality. There were participants who had been court ordered to receive treatment as well as participants who had personally chosen to receive treatment (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009).

The therapy dog used was a Beagle mix named Mitzi Ann. Mitzi Ann was chosen for this experiment because of the “tricks” that she had been taught. Mitzi Ann was trained to retrieve a tissue from a tissue box and bring it to any participant who began crying or who sneezed. She naturally moved from client to client throughout the therapy sessions, making herself available for physical touch to anyone who wanted it. Physical touch can be very important in an addiction therapy setting because of the social stigma that many addicts deal with; they are often rejected by family and friends and many of the participants in this study had previously been homeless, had come directly out of jail, and had not experienced the comfort of home in some time (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009).

or would I have to cite them at the end of every sentence, even when I’m describing the expiriment in paraphrase for an entire paragraph? Or could I just cite them at the end of each paraphrased paragraph describing the expiriment?

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16 Answers

Seelix's avatar

I’m not familiar with APA format; being a language student I use MLA. But if I were going to do what you’re doing, I’d lean toward your first example. It seems silly to cite every sentence, but that might be the way APA wants it.

Are you able to contact your prof? I’d ask just to be on the safe side.

stemnyjones's avatar

That’s my problem, lol. I’ve written 3 MLA papers this semester and this is my first APA paper… since this is the first time in over 5 years I’m writing a paper for college, I am very confused. :P

I sent my prof an email two days ago and he hasn’t yet responded. The next time I take his class is when the essay is due, so unfortunately I don’t think he is going to be of any help.

janbb's avatar

I would be inclined to reference the source as part of the text in the beginning of the applicable section , e.g., “According to Blank and Blank in Title of Work(date), the study…...

stemnyjones's avatar

@janbb That’s what I tried to do in this sentence:

“In the study that I will be referencing, Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson arranged for participants who were seeking therapy for substance…”

This was directly after citing the authors with the date of the article twice, so I’m not sure if I need to put the date again.

“The main problem in addiction therapy is figuring out how long to keep a drug abuser in the program long enough for it to work (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009). One of the best ways to ensure this is to create a good therapeutic alliance, meaning that the client feels that he or she can trust the therapist and feels like they are in a non-judging, safe environment (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009). In the study that I will be referencing, Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson arranged for participants who were seeking therapy…”

But since that is in the first paragraph, would I have to do it again at the beginning of the next paragraph?

“There were participants who had been court ordered to receive treatment as well as participants who had personally chosen to receive treatment (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009).

The therapy dog chosen by Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson (2009) was a Beagle mix named Mitzi Ann. Mitzi Ann was chosen for this experiment because of the “tricks” that she had been taught.”

Seelix's avatar

Here’s how I’d change the last little bit you posted:

“There were participants who had been court ordered to receive treatment as well as participants who had personally chosen to receive treatment (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009).

The therapy dog chosen by Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson (2009) was a Beagle mix named Mitzi Ann. Mitzi Ann was chosen for this experiment because of the “tricks” that she had been taught.”

Because you referenced the study at the beginning of paragraph 1, I don’t think you need to do so at the end. However, I would mention it again at the beginning of paragraph 2.

If you don’t get a definitive answer, here’s what I’d do: print two copies of the page, cited two different ways. Grab the prof at the beginning of class and explain your dilemma, then hand in the “right” one ;)

Seaofclouds's avatar

“In the study that I will be referencing, Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson arranged for participants who were seeking therapy for substance…” could simply be “Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson (year of source here) arranged for participants who were seeking therapy for substance…”, then at the end of the paragraph you would cite the source with ”(Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009)” without the quotes. There’s really no reason to say “In the study that I will be referencing”. Also, in APA papers, it’s not proper to use “I”, instead, you would say “this author”.

You would need to put a citation at the end of each paragraph to show that you are still talking about their work, but not at the end of each sentence.

stemnyjones's avatar

@Seaofclouds That sounds reasonable to me. Do you mind me asking how sure you are of your answer? :)

Seaofclouds's avatar

@stemnyjones All of my time in college from 2003–2007 and then 2008–2010 was spent writing papers in APA format. It’s the only format we used in the nursing programs I was in, so all of our other classes used it as well. So I’ve had lots of practice and I’m happy to be done with them for now. :)

stemnyjones's avatar

Great, thanks! Great Answers for all of you, thanks for your suggestions!

janbb's avatar

I think what @Seaofclouds says sounds right.

Facade's avatar

If I’m not mistaken, when you quote more than 40 or it may be 90 words from a source, you use a block quote. I’m in school using APA format now, but again I could be wrong about the number of words quoted that need a block quote.
Edited: Found it

Seaofclouds's avatar

@Facade That would be for a direct quote, not when paraphrasing the original authors work.

Facade's avatar

Oh, I thought the OP was quoting. Never mind!

Porifera's avatar

Agree with @Seaofclouds on … could simply be “Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson (year of source here) arranged for participants who were seeking therapy for substance…”,... But, you have to add the page of the book as well: (Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009, p. 19). However, then at the end of the paragraph you would cite the source with ”(Wesley, Minatrea, & Watson, 2009)... double citation is not necessary for citations of less than 40 words (which should be in a freestanding block [not your case it seems]). So, your first model of citation is better than the second. You also indicate the very first sentence in the paragraph was not quoted from any source. It is OK to introduce the paragraph with your own words and then proceed with the quotes/paraphrasing. You can also explain or comment on stuff in between quotes. As long as you give credit to the authors, you can do all the paraphrasing you want, that way you are not claiming that those ideas are yours.

chewhorse's avatar

I wouldn’t think so unless it deals commercially.. If you adhered to the strictest course of the law then you couldn’t watch a home DVD with anyone else present.

stemnyjones's avatar

@chewhorse My professors are very strict on citing. They will report you to the dean for plagiarism, which will get you expelled, even if it was a mistake.

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